## Late tiering decisions

Last week year 11 sat their mocks. Some did really well, others did really poorly. It’s the latter group that has me purplexed. Students sitting the higher tier paper but only scoring single digits per paper, or even earlt teens per paper. What to do with them?

Some of them asked if they could move to foundation, I think its best for them. 1 student got 32 marks over 3 higher papers, did the 3 foundation and was well over 100. 1 student got 40 marks over 3 higher papers spent 30 mins in a foundation paper and got 60 marks. The grade 5s they want seem more achievable on foundation.

My issue lies with a few students desperate to do higher and try for 6s. Scoring around 50 marks over 3 higher papers it seems a risk. But having taught them both i feel that it’s within their capabilities. But from November to march they have made only tiny gains in marks. On the ine hand, foundation means they cant get a 6 and for at least one of them means rethinking post 16 choices, but on the other hand sitting higher means they might end up with only a 4 or less and thst would mean rethinking post 16 again. It’s tricky, any thoughts are welcomed.

## Cereal Percentages

This week my Y11s are sitting mock exams. One of the questions that came up on paper 1 stumped a lot them.

They came out if the exam on monday, and said the paper was very difficult. One of them asked me one of the questions:

*“Sir, if you have a box of cereal and increase it by 25% but keep the price the same, what percentage would you need to decrease the price of the original box by to get the same value?”*

I immediately said “20%”, an answer which flummoxed the student and the others stood around. They couldn’t work out how I had got that answer, never mind so quickly.

I tried to explain it to them, but in that moment, on the corridor, I didn’t do a very good job. For me, it was intuitive. A 25% increase and a 20% decrease would yield the same value as in one you are changing the top of a fraction and the other the bottom of a fraction so you need to use the reciprocal, 4/5 is the reciprocal of 5/4 and 4/5 is 80% hence it needs to be a 20% decrease. Cue blank looks and pained expressions. I was seeing the students again later in an intervention session so I promised to go through it in more detail then.

I talked about the idea of value, how you could consider mass/price and get grams per penny – how many grams for each penny you spend – or you could consider price/mass and get penny per grams – how much you pay per gram. I said either of these would give an idea of value and you can use either in a best value problem.

I showed them the idea of the fraction, said you could call the price x and the size y.

The starting scenario is:

*y/x*

The posed scenario is:

*1.25y/x*

but we know 1.25 is 5/4 so that becomes:

*(5/4)y / x*

which in turn is:

*5y/4x*

I then showed that the second scenario meant getting to the same value but altering x. To do this you would need to mutiply x by 4/5:

*y/(x(4/5))*

*(y/x)÷(4/5)*

*(y/x) × (5/4)*

*5y/4x*

This managed to show some of them what was going on, but others still massively struggled. I tried showing them with numbers. 100 grams for £1. This again had an effect for some but still left others blank.

*I’m now racking my brains for another way to explain it. If you have a better explanation, please let me know in the comments of via social media!*

## Simultaneous Equations

It’s been a while since i last wrote anything here. Which says more about how busy I’ve been than my desire to write, but I hope to start writing more regularly.

This week I was teaching simultaneous equations and a student asked a question that made me think about things so I thought i would share.

I was teaching elimination method and I had done some examples with the coefficients of y having different signs and I put one on the board with the same signs and asked the class to think how we may go about solving. One of the students in the class put uo his hand after a while and said he thought he had solved it.

5x + 4y = 13

2x + 2y = 6

I asked hime to talk us through his thinking and he said “first I multipled the bottom equation by -2”

5x + 4y = 13

-4x – 4y = -12

“then I added the equations as before”

x = 1

“Then I subbed in and solved.”

2 + 2y = 6

2y = 4

y = 2

“so the point of intersection is (1,2)”.

This wasn’t what I was expecting. I was expecting him to have spotted we could subtract instead, but this method was clearly just as correct. It wasn’t something I had considered as a method before this, but I actually really liked it as a method and it led to a good discussion with the class after another student interjected with her solution which was what I expected, to multiply by 2 and subtract.

It was a great start point to a discussion where the students were looking at the two methods, and understanding why they both worked, the link between addition of a negative and subtracting a positive and many more.

*I was wondering, does anyone teach this as a method? Have you had similar discussions in your lessons? What do you think of it?*

## Thoughts on the understanding paradox and introducing trigonometry

Recently I read a blog entitled “The understanding paradox” (William, 2017) which discussed the idea of maths teaching and put forward the idea that actually, it is better to bypass understanding when first teaching a topic and then fill that understanding in later. This was then applied to the teaching of right angled triangle trigonometry in an example that I found confusing to say the least.

The author, Rufus William, suggested that when teaching trig for the first time we should be solely teaching procedurally using SOHCAHTOA as a mnemonic, but then went on to say we shouldn’t be discussing ratio or similarity and how that links until later on. This confused me as the mnemonic SOHCAHTOA is designed to help you remember the trig ratios. I.e. Sine is the ratio of the opposite side over the hypotenuse. Just by teaching that you ARE teaching the trig ratios and purely by the fact that you are teaching the students that this will work for all right angled triangles you are telling the students that the ratios are the same for any triangle with the same angle no matter what the length of the sides are. THIS IS THE VERY DEFINITION OF SIMILAR TRIANGLES.

This perplexed me a lot and I spent a lot of time thinking about it and asking the author to elaborate on what he meant. The only way I can fathom to teach this without reference to ratio and similarity would be to say: ” “SOHCAHTOA” it gives you 3 triangles. Label the sides circle them to see which triangle you use. Put numbers in, cover the missing one, its either a divide or a times”. To me this seems like a backwards way to go about things. It feels like you are teaching them unnecessary procedures to avoid discussing the underlying concepts of trigonometry, and it doesn’t really make sense to me.

I find that by the time students reach right angled triangle trigonometry they have already met the concept of similarity, I like to use this a way in to discussing the topic and to show that ratio of two sides that are the same in relation to an angle will be the same for all similar triangles. Students will have always encountered simplifying fractions before they meet trig and as such can see why this is. This is when I specifically discuss the sine, cosine and tangent ratios and introduce the procedural manner in which they can solve the problems, although I do avoid the dreaded formula triangles (for many reasons which I have blogged about here). I will show them some common mnemonics, and SOHCAHTOA is one of them. I’m not a fan of mnemonics personally, I’ve never found them that useful except for musical ones, but I know a lot of people do.

Rufus does make some salient points in his post about teachers who refuse to allow students to memorise things and the dangers this will have on learning. Although I’m not entirely sure that they exist, and if they do I certainly don’t think there are many of them. I’ve certainly never met any.

He also suggests that students cannot have a full understanding of the ins and outs of trigonometry when they first meet it. I would very much agree with him in that respect, I know many people who have taught trigonometry for decades and still don’t, but I don’t think that means we have to bypass all information.

**Reference List:**

Cavadino, S.R. 2014. Formula Triangles. 12th October. *Cavmaths. *[online] accessed 14th July 2017. available: https://cavmaths.wordpress.com/2014/10/12/formula-triangles/

Cavadino, S.R. 2016. Catchy Mnemonics. 16th September. *Cavmaths. *[Online] accessed 14th July. Available: https://cavmaths.wordpress.com/2016/09/16/catchy-mnemonics/

William, R. 2017. The understanding paradox. 7th July. *No easy answers. *[online] accessed 14th July 2017. available: https://noeasyanswerseducation.wordpress.com/2017/07/07/the-understanding-paradox/

## Group Work Issues

Recently I wrote this post (2017) that highlights various ways that I can see group work being of benefit to students study in mathematics. In the post I allude to there being many issues around group work that can have a detrimental effect on the learning of the students and I intend to explore them a little further here.

The benefits of group work can be vast, and are often tied to the discussion around the mathematics involved in a way consistent with the writings of Hodgen and Marshall (2005), Mortimer and Scott (2003), Piaget (1970), Simmons (1993), Skemp (1987) and Vygotsky (1962) amongst others. These perceived benefits give the students a chance to try things, make mistakes, bounce ideas around and then find their way through together. Seeing the links between the things they know and its application within new contexts or the links between different areas of maths.

So what are the down sides?

Good et al. (1992) warn that group work can reinforce and perpetuate misconceptions. This is an idea that is also expressed by von Duyke and Matsov (2015) who feel that the teacher should be able to step in and correct any misconceptions that the students express, although this would be difficult in a classroom where a number of groups are working simultaneously and it also goes against the feelings expressed by some researchers, such as Pearcy (2015), that students should be allowed to get stuck and not receive hints. This is a tricky one to balance. As teachers we clearly do not want misconceptions becoming embedded within the minds of our students, but we do want to allow them time to struggle and to really get to grips with the maths. I try to circulate and address misconceptions when they arise but in a manner that allows students to see why they are wrong, but not give them the correct answer.

Another potential pitfall of group work is related to student confidence. Some students worry about being wrong and as such will not speak up. This is an issue that transcends group work and that we need to be aware of in all our lessons and is discussed at length in “inside the black box” (Black and Wiliam, 1998). It is part of our jobs as teachers to create an environment where students do not fear this, and are comfortable with talking without fear of being laughed at. I try to create a culture where students know it’s better to try and be wrong than not to try at all. This classroom culture is discussed by Hattie (2002) as an “optimal classroom climate” and it is certainly a good aim for all classrooms.

The other main downside to group work is behaviour related (Good et al., 1992). Group work can be more difficult to police, and it can become difficult to check that everyone is involved if you have a large class that is split into many groups. This can give rise to the phenomenon known as “Social Loafing”, which is where some members of the group will opt out in order to have an easy ride as they feel other group members will take on their work as well (Karau and Williams, 1993). This is something that teachers need to consider and be wary of. The risk of these issues having a negative impact on learning can vary wildly from class to class and from teacher to teacher. I would advise that any teacher who is considering group work needs to seriously consider the potential for poor behaviour and social loafing to negatively impact the lesson and to think about how they ensure it doesn’t. Different things work for different people. Some people assign roles etc. to groups. Some set up a structure where students can “buy” help from the teacher or other groups. Often a competitive element is introduced. All of these can be effect or not, again depending on the class and on the teacher so it is something we need to work on individually. I’ve written before about one method I’ve had some success with here (2013).

So there are some of the worries around group work and thoughts on what needs to be considered when embarking on it. As mentioned in my previous post, I feel that group work is an inefficient way to introduce new concepts and new learning, but I do see it as something that can be very effective when building problems solving skills and looking at linking areas of mathematics together.

*What are your thoughts on group work? And what are your thoughts on the issues mentioned in the article? I’d love to hear them via the comments or on social media.*

**Reference list / Further reading:**

Black, P. and Wiliam, D. 1998. *Inside the black box: Raising standards through classroom assessment*. London: School of Education, King’s College London.

Cavadino, S.R. 2013. Effective Group Work. 5^{th} July. *Cavmaths.* [online] accessed 14^{th} July 2017. Available: https://cavmaths.wordpress.com/2013/07/05/effective-group-work/

Cavadino, S.R. 2017. Student led learning in maths. 13^{th} July. *Cavmaths.* [online] accessed 14^{th} July 2017. Available: https://cavmaths.wordpress.com/2017/07/13/student-led-learning-in-maths/

Good, T.L., McCaslin, M. and Reys, B.J. 1993. Investigating work groups to promote problem-solving in mathematics. In: Brophy, J. ed. *Advances in research on teaching: Planning and managing learning tasks and activities*. United Kingdom: JAI Press.

Hattie, J. 2012. *Visible learning for teachers: Maximizing impact on learning*. Abingdon: Routledge.

Hodgen, J. and Marshall, B. 2005. Assessment for learning in English and mathematics: A comparison. *Curriculum Journal*. **16**(2), pp.153–176.

Karau, S.J. and Williams, K.D. 1993. Social loafing: A meta-analytic review and theoretical integration. *Journal of Personality and Social Psychology*. **65**(4), pp.681–706.

Mortimer, E. and Scott, P. 2003. *Meaning making in secondary science classrooms*. Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Pearcy, D. 2015. Reflections on patient problem solving. *Mathematics Teaching*. **247**, pp.39–40.

Piaget, J. 1970. *Genetic epistemology*. 2nd ed. New York: New York, Columbia University Press, 1970.

Simmons, M. 1993. *The effective teaching of mathematics*. Harlow: Longman.

Skemp, R.R. 1987. *The psychology of learning mathematics*. United States: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

von Duyke, K. and Matusov, E. 2015. Flowery math: A case for heterodiscoursia in mathematics problems solving in recognition of students’ authorial agency. *Pedagogies: An International Journal*. **11**(1), pp.1–21.

Vygotsky, L.S. 1962. *Thought and language*. Cambridge, MA: M.I.T. Press, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

** **

## Student Led Learning in Maths

Student led learning seems to be a bit of a hot topic at the moment. I’ve seen these two graphics making the rounds on twitter, I can’t find them now, but one was a slide proclaiming why student led learning was better and one was the same slide but altered to say it was worse. This of course came with great debate from all quarters.

It is also certainly a much talked about issue in the teaching and learning meetings we are having in my school.

This morning we had a great presentation from a food tech colleague who described a fantastic lesson where students had been allowed to lead their own learning on the function of eggs in cooking. A number of different recipes had been provided (as diverse as Egg Custard and Chick Pea Burgers) and students were given the choice as to what to cook and asked to investigate.

This sounded interesting, so I began to think about the applications this may have in a maths classroom. While studying for my Masters I read a lot about group work and other pedagogical approaches to the teaching of mathematics. I found that there was a lot of evidence to suggest that, on the teaching of new content, “whole class teaching”, i.e. direct instruction, was the most effective method (Reynolds and Mujis, 1999). However, this approach can often lead to students being proficient in algorithmically following a process to achieve and answer – ie they can have an instrumental understand of the topic but not a deeper understanding of the underlying concepts. This can lead to issues when students encounter a question that is phrased in a different way or that requires a variety of mathematical topics to solve. (e.g Avital and Shettleworth, 1968, Davis, 1984 and Skemp, 1976)

This was an area that interested me and my dissertation focus was using group work and other problem solving ideas to deepen conceptual understanding at A Level maths. I found that with my cohort explicitly teaching problem solving approaches and then setting problems that required a variety of approaches to be solved in groups to be effective. Some real success was had when I used problems I had not encountered and as such was able to act like a member of the group while bouncing ideas around.

My findings backed up the work of others who had suggested problem solving as a good tool to deepen conceptual understanding. (e.g. Avital and Shettleworth, 1968, English and Halford, 1995, Hembree, 1992, Karp, 2004, Silver and Marshall, 1999, and Zeitz, 2006)

In the new maths GCSE we are seeing questions that are focussed on testing a deeper understanding using problems that require thinking about and often require a number of mathematical techniques to solve. This is a move away from predictable questions and as such, teaching methods aimed at giving algorithms to students to solve types of questions will no longer work.

One simple example is questions based on ratio. Previously ratio questions usually took one of two forms, use a ratio to scale up a recipe or split this amount into this ration. Both are easily solvable by an algorithm and I’ve seen this taught this was and correct answers given by students who don’t really know what a ratio is. Now we are seeing ratio questions that include other areas of maths, such as densities, as well as questions where the language is quite important and a better understanding of what is going on is required.

i.e. A student who is taught, “When you see a ratio you add, divide then multiply”, will get full marks on a question asking “Sana and Jo split £110 pounds in the ratio 6:5, how much does Sana get?” but may get nothing if the question asks: “Fred and Nigel split some money in the ratio 6:5, Fred gets £10 more than Nigel. How much does Nigel get?” Even though there is a comparable level of mathematics used.

This, I feel, is where group work / “student led learning” could be very effective in maths teaching. Once content has been taught students need to practice that content in new setting and to mix it up with other content that has been learned. Tasks need to be set and students need to be given adequate time to get stuck and struggle. This will build resilience and problem solving skills as well as allowing students to see where various strands of maths can be applied.

This ties in with something I read recently that Kris Boulton (2017) had written about the use of learning objectives. Kris argues that sometimes it is important not to use learning objectives as this tells students exactly what maths they need to be using to solve a problem. This is a big factor in this idea around problem solving and I would go further and say that it’s important not to set problems that involve topics you have taught in the last few lessons as this will have the same effect as having an objective such as “use Pythagoras’s Theorem to solve problems involving areas.”

I hope to write more about this in the coming weeks as I look to further apply the findings of my dissertation to KS3 and 4. My thoughts at the moment are that this “student led” approaches are good for the development of these skills once the core content has already been taught. There are, of course, many draw backs to group work and other student led approaches, but they are for another post for another day.

**Reference List:**

Avital, S.M. and Shettleworth, S.J. 1968. *Objectives for mathematics learning; some ideas for the teacher*. Toronto: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education.

Boulton, K. 2017. Whywe need to get rid of lesson objetives. 17^{th} April. *To the real*. [online] accessed 13^{th} July 2017. Available: https://tothereal.wordpress.com/2017/04/17/why-we-need-to-get-rid-of-lesson-objectives/

Davis, R.B. 1984. *Learning mathematics: The cognitive science approach to mathematics education*. London: Croom Helm.

English, L.D. and Halford, G.S. 1995. *Mathematics education: Models and processes*. New Jersey, United States: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Hembree, R. 1992. Experiments and relational studies in problem solving: a meta analysis. *Journal for research in mathematics education*. **33**(3), pp.242–273.

Karp, A. 2004. Conducting Research and Solving Problems: The Russian Experience of Inservice Training. In: Watanabe, T. and Thompson, D. eds. *The Work of Mathematics Teacher Educators. Exchanging Ideas for Effective Practice*. Raleigh, NC: AMTE, pp.35–48.

Reynolds, D. and Muijs, D. 1999. The effective teaching of mathematics: A review of research. *School Leadership & Management*. **19**(3), pp.273–288

Silver, E.A. and Marshall, S.P. 1990. Mathematical and scientific problem solving: Findings, issues and instructional implications. In: Jones, B.F. and Idol, L. eds. *Dimensions of thinking and cognitive instruction*. Hilsdale, New Jersey, United States: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp.265–290.

Skemp, R.R. 1976. Relational understanding and instrumental understanding. *Mathematics Teaching*. **77**, pp.20–27

Zeitz, P. 2006. *The art and craft of problem solving*. USA: John Wiley.

## When will I use this?

Recently I read a rather interesting article from Daniel Willingham about whether there were people who just cant do maths. It was a very good read and I hope to write my thoughts on it later, when I’ve had more time to digest the material and form some coherent thoughts, but there was one part that set me off on a train of thought that I want to write about here.

The part in question was discussing physical manipulatives and real life examples. Willingham said that there is some use in them but that research suggests this can sometimes be overstated as many abstract concepts have no real life examples. He then spoke about analogies and how they can be very effective in maths of used well.

This got me thinking, earlier on the day a year 12 student had asked me “when am I ever going to use proof in real life?”. This type of question is one I get a lot about various maths topics, and my stock answer tends to be “that depends what career you end up in”. Many students, when asking this, seem to think real life doesn’t mean work. A short discussion about the various roles that would use it and that its possible they never will if they chose different roles but that the reasoning skills it builds are useful is usually enough and certainly was in this case.

It does beg the question though “why do they only ask maths teachers”? Last week when a y10 student asked about “real life” use of algebraic fractions I asked him if he asked his English teachers when he’d need to know hiw to analyse an unseen poem in real life. He said no. I asked if he thought he would. Again no.

So why ask in maths?

The Willingham article got me thinking about this. There has been, throughout my career, a strong steer towards contextualising every maths topics. Observers and trainers pushing “make it relate to them” at every turn. But some topics have no every day relatable context.Circle theorems, for instance, are something that are not going to be encountered outside of school by pretty much any of them. So maybe thats the issue. Maybe we are drilling them with real life contexts too much in earlier years, and this means when they encounter algebraic fractions, circle theorems or proof and don’t have a relatable context the question arises not from somewhere that is naturally in them, but from somewhere that has been built into them through the mathematics education we give them.

Maybe we should spend more time on abstract concepts, ratger than forcing real life contexts. Especially when some of those contexts are ridiculous – who looks at a garden and thinks “that side is x + 4, that side is x – 2, I wonder what the area is?” (See more pseudocontext here and here).

What do you think? Do you think we should be spending more time lower down om the abstract contexts? Please let me know in comments or via social media.## Share this via:

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